The Birth of the Illuminati
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Darkness Over All: John Robison and the Birth of the Illuminati Conspiracy
by Mike Jay
At the beginning of 1797, John Robison was a man with a solid and long-standing reputation in the British scientific establishment. He had been Professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh University for over twenty years, an authority on mathematics and optics, and had recently been appointed senior scientific contributor on the third edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to which he would eventually contribute over a thousand pages of articles. Yet by the end of the year, his professional reputation had been eclipsed by a sensational book that vastly outsold anything he had previously written, and whose shockwaves would continue to reverberate long after his scientific work had been forgotten. Its title was Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, and it launched on the English-speaking public the enduring theory that a vast conspiracy, masterminded by a covert Masonic cell known as the Illuminati, was in the process of subverting all the cherished institutions of the civilised world and co-opting them into instruments of its secret and godless plan: the tyranny of the masses under the invisible control of unknown superiors, and a new era of ‘darkness over all'.
The first edition of Proofs of a Conspiracy sold out within days, and within a year it had been republished many times, not only in Edinburgh but in London, Dublin and New York. Robison had hit a nerve by offering an answer, plausible to many, to the great questions of the day: what had caused the French Revolution, and had there been any plan behind its bloody and tumultuous progress?
Many had located the roots of the revolution in the ideas of Enlightenment figures such as Voltaire, Diderot and D'Alembert, who had exalted reason and progress over authority and tradition; but none of these mostly aristocratic philosophes had advocated a revolution of the masses, and indeed several of them had ended their lives on the guillotine. In the early 1790s, it had been possible to believe that the power-hungry lawyers and journalists of the Jacobin Club had whipped up the Paris mob into their destructive frenzy as a means to their own ends, but by 1794 Danton, Robespierre and the rest of the Jacobin leaders had followed their victims to the guillotine: how could they have been the puppet-masters when they had had their own strings so brutally cut? What Robison was proposing in the densely-argued and meticulously documented pages of Proofs of a Conspiracy was that all these agents of revolution had been pawns in a much bigger game, whose ambitions were only just beginning to make themselves visible.
The French Revolution, like all convulsive world events before and since, had been full of conspiracies, bred by the speed of events, the panic of those caught up in them and the limited information available to them as they unfolded. The Paris mobs, cut off from the outside world by their heavily guarded city walls, had been convinced that counter-revolutionary forces had joined together in a pacte de famine to starve their communes to death. The French aristocracy, in turn, were convinced from the beginning that the King was to be kidnapped and murdered. Rumours swept the army that they were being betrayed by their high command. The cities of surrounding countries hummed with allegations of plots to incite their own peasants to revolt against them. In Britain, enemies of the revolution such as Edmund Burke had claimed from the beginning that ‘already confederacies and correspondences of the most extraordinary nature are forming in several countries', and by 1797 most believed -- and with good reason -- that secret societies in Ireland were plotting with Napoleon to overthrow the British government and invade the mainland. The power of Robison's revelation was that it identified within this buzzing confusion of conspiracies a single protagonist, a single ideology and a single overarching plot that crystallised the chaos into a concerted drama and elevated it into an epic struggle between good and evil, whose outcome would define the future of world politics.
An Imposing Shadow of Little Substance
Robison's vast conspiracy needed an imposing and terrifying figurehead, a role for which Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati, seemed on the surface of things to be an unpromising candidate. Obsessive and domineering, Weishaupt had from the beginning found difficulty in attracting members to his secret society, where they were expected to adopt mystical pseudonyms chosen by him, jump through the hoops of his strict initiatic grades and take up subservient roles in his messianic but unfocused crusade for world domination. Nor did the appeal of his Order translate easily into the world beyond his small provincial network. Catholic Bavaria was held tightly in the grip of the Jesuits, under whom Weishaupt had been educated and whose influence his Illuminati aimed to counter and subvert; but the ‘secret knowledge' of enlightenment with which he lured initiates was mostly secret only in Bavaria, where the philsophies of Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot were still suppressed. Elsewhere, and particularly in France, their works had long been freely available: French Masonic lodges, particularly the Grand Orient, already offered congenial surroundings and company for discussing such ideas, and had shown little interest in the Bavarian Illuminati's attempts to infiltrate them. After 1784, when the Order had been exposed and banned by the Elector of Bavaria, Weishaupt had exiled himself to Gotha in central Germany, since when he appeared to have done little beyond producing a series of morose and self-justifying memoirs of his adventures.
Yet there was also much in the career of the Illuminati that offered, to Robison at least, a view of a far more expansive and sinister scheme. Weishaupt's grandiose sense of his own mission and the Order's extravagant structures -- its nested grades of Novice and Minerval, Illuminatus Minor and Major, Dirigens and Magus, and the portentous pseudonyms of members such as Spartacus, Cato and Pythagoras -- all hinted at a far larger organisation than that which had been exposed. Weishaupt's subsequent publications had also revealed an ideology more extreme and politically reckless than most of the enlightened philosophies of his day. While most of the leading apostles of reason, such as Voltaire, had envisaged that their programme would eventually generate benign rule by an educated elite, Weishaupt had espoused a radical programme of egalitarian reforms, including the abolition of all private property, inspired by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's belief that the exercise of reason would free humanity from its chains of servitude and restore the natural life of the ‘noble savage'. This was perhaps, in the 1780s, not so much a revolutionary plan for the future of politics as a wistful, even reactionary hope of a return to an idealised and imaginary past; but since the French Revolution had erupted, it had begun to read ever more suggestively as a prophecy of the anarchy and bloodshed that had followed.
The suppression of the Illuminati, too, had generated a furore quite out of proportion to the danger it represented. It had become a lightning-rod for pervasive anxieties among the supporters of church and monarchy about the project of reason and progress that was being seeded across Europe by the confident vanguard of philosophers and scientists, and the members-only network of Masonic lodges through which it was being propagated. Most representatives of this world were discreet about their activities and conciliatory about their beliefs, but Weishaupt's exposure, and with it his cloak-and-dagger strategy of covert infiltration and his doctrine of the perfection of human nature by the destruction of government and religion, offered dramatic confirmation of the traditionalists' deepest fears. It was not in the interests of Weishaupt's enemies to play down his ambitions or take a sceptical look at the threat that he actually represented, and the Illuminati furore had generated hundreds of screeds, polemics, handbills and scandal sheets, all competing to file the most damning charges of godless infamy. It was these sources that Robison had spent years perusing intently for scraps, anecdotes and telling details to mould into the proofs of the conspiracy that he now presented. To the dispassionate observer, Weishaupt and his Illuminati might have been a suggestive precursor or an eloquent symbol of the forces that were now reconfiguring Europe; but for Robison they had become the literal cause: the centre, thus far invisible, of the web of events that had consumed the world.
Drug-Addled Delusions of a New World Order
Robison may have been a distant spectator of the Illuminati furore, but he was no dispassionate observer. While Proofs of a Conspiracy came as a surprise (and in most cases an embarrassing one) to his friends and scientific colleagues, there were many reasons why the Illuminati had presented itself to him in particular in the form that it did. It was a discovery that resolved long-standing suspicions and conflicts in both his private and professional life, and one that chimed in particular with his own curious adventures in freemasonry.
By 1797, Robison's character had taken a grave and saturnine turn, far removed from the cheerful and convivial temperament of his youth. In 1785 he had begun to suffer from a mysterious medical condition, a severe and painful spasm of the groin: it seemed to emanate from behind his testicles, but its precise origin baffled the most distinguished doctors of Edinburgh and London. Racked with pain and frequently bed-ridden, by the late 1790s he had become a withdrawn and isolated figure; he was using opium liberally, a regime which according to some of his acquaintances made him vulnerable to melancholy, confusion and paranoia. As the successive crises of the French Revolution shook Britain, with rumours of massacres and threats of invasion following relentlessly upon one another, the nation was gripped by a panic that was particularly intense in Scotland, where ministers and judges whipped up constant rumours of fifth columnists, traitors and secret Jacobin cells. Tormented, heavily medicated and constantly assailed by terrifying news from the outside world, Robison had all too many dark thoughts to elaborate into the plot that came to consume him.
Political events had also thrown a deep shadow across his professional life. The physical sciences, too, were in the grip of a French revolution, led in this case by Antoine Lavoisier. During the 1780s, Lavoisier had overthrown the chemical theories of the previous century with his discovery of oxygen, from which he had been able to establish new theories of combustion and to begin the process of reducing all material substances to a basic table of elements. Lavoisier's revolution had split British chemistry: some recognised that his elegantly conceived and minutely recorded experiments had transformed the science of matter, but for others his new and foreign terminology was, like the French metric system and the revolutionary Year Zero, an arrogant attempt to wipe away the accumulated wisdom of the ages and to eliminate the role of God in the physical world. The old system of chemistry, with its mysterious forms of energy and its languages of essences and principles, had readily contained the idea of a life-force and the mysterious breath of the divine; but in Lavoisier's cold new world, matter was being stripped of all such imponderable properties and reduced to inert building-blocks manipulated by the measurable forces of pressure and temperature.
This was a conflict that had not spared the University of Edinburgh. Its professor of chemistry, Joseph Black, had long been the most distinguished chemist in Britain: in 1754 he had been the first to isolate and identify ‘fixed air', or carbon dioxide, and his subsequent study of gases had enabled his friend James Watt to develop the steam engine. Lavoisier had built on Black's discoveries to formulate his new chemistry, and Black had been quick to recognise its validity. Robison, however, found Black's capitulation humiliating: he had never accepted the new French theories, and by 1797 he had worked the new chemistry deep into his Illuminatist plot. For him, Lavoisier -- along with Britain's most famous experimental chemist, the dissenting minister Joseph Priestley -- was a master Illuminist, working in concert with infiltrated Masonic lodges to spread the doctrine of materialism that would underlie the new atheist world order. Madame Lavoisier's famous salons, at which the leading Continental philosophes met to discuss the new theories, were now revealed by Robison to have been the venues for sacreligious rites where the hostess, dressed in the ceremonial robes of an occult priestess, ritually burned the texts of the old chemistry. Implausible though this image might seem, it was all of a piece with other proofs that Robison had assembled in his book - for example, the anonymous German pamphlet that claimed that, at the great philosophe Baron d'Holbach's salons, the brains of living children bought from poor parents were dissected in an attempt to isolate their life-force.
But if the Illuminati seemed to be crowding into Robison's profesional life, his most personal connection with their conspiracy came through Masonry itself. He had been a member of the Scottish Rite for decades without ever regarding its lodges as more than ‘a pretext for passing an hour or two in a fort of decent conviviality, not altogether void of some rational occupation'; but his career had frequently taken him abroad, where he had been shocked to discover that not all masonic orders were so innocent. In 1770 Catherine the Great had requested the British government to supply some technically-minded naval officers to modernise her fleet and Robison, who had previously supervised a trial of John Harrison's longitude chronometer on a voyage to the West Indies, was offered the chance of secondment. He spent a year at Catherine's court in St. Petersburg, learning Russian and lecturing on navigation, and during the course of his travels he had met with other masons and visited lodges in France, Belgium, Germany and Russia.
What he saw had shocked him: by comparison with the Scottish Rite, the Continental lodges were ‘schools of irreligion and licentiousness'. Their members seemed to him consumed by ‘zeal and fanaticism', and their religious views ‘much disturbed by the mystical whims of J. Behmen [Jacob Boehme] and Swedenborg - by the fanatical and knavish doctrines of the modern Rosycrucians - by Magicians - Magnetisers - Exorcists, &c.'. He had returned to Edinburgh with the chilling conviction that ‘the homely Free Masonry imported from England has been totally changed in every country of Europe'; now, thirty years later, as he recalled the occultism and freethinking to which he had been briefly but unforgettably exposed, he had no doubt as to the source of the destruction that had engulfed the Continent.
A Brother in Arms
Shortly after the publication of Proofs of a Conspiracy, Robison's theory received striking corroboration from the first volumes of the Jesuit Abbé Augustin de Barruel's monumental Memoires pour Servir a l'Histoire de Jacobinisme, published in French in 1797 and swiftly translated into English, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch and Portugese. Barruel had fled to London after the dissolution of the Jesuit order during the French Revolution and had, like Robison, spent years assembling the most lurid denunciations of the Illuminati into a polemic arguing that the apparent chaos of the revolution had in fact all been ‘foreseen, premeditated, plotted, planned, resolved; everything that happened was the result of the deepest wickedness, because everything was prepared and managed by men who alone held the threads of long-settled conspiracies'. Even the guillotine had been designed (by Dr. Guillotine, the well-known Freemason) in the shape of the Masonic triangle. Adam Weishaupt, according to Barruel, had pulled together the threads of atheism and anarchy that had emerged over the previous century - the sceptical philosophy of Spinoza, the demonic conjuring of Mesmer and Caglostro, the godless fact-gathering of the French philosophes - and injected them into French masonry and the Jacobin clubs, from where they had radiated out to the ignorant and mesmerised French masses. Robison regarded Barruel's synthesis as ‘a very remarkable work indeed', and added a postscript to the second edition of his book that spelt out the extraordinary similarities between them.
Barruel's work rolled out in volume after volume, each wilder and more vituperative than the last, and rapidly established itself as a founding text of conspiracy theory for the nineteenth century and beyond. In almost every way, he and Adam Weishaupt were perfect foils for one another: Weishaupt the lapsed Jesuit whose Illuminati were established in the image of his nemesis as shock troops for reason and liberty, and Barruel the attack-dog for the deposed ancien régimewho sought to turn the ‘black legend' of Jesuit conspiracy and brutality back on the enlightened forces that had generated it. The power of each depended on ramping up the threat that the other represented; each colluded in concocting and feeding fantasies of secrecy and potency; but each also saw deep into the hidden heart of his adversary, externalising and parading his secret dreams.
However, this was a drama that had less potency in Britain, and though Proofs of a Conspiracybecame a handsome bestseller, the Illuminati conspiracy never gripped the imagination of the British political class as it did in Continental Europe. Edmund Burke, for example, though he welcomed Barruel cordially to London and deplored the persecution of Catholics and Jesuits in revolutionary France, was careful not to endorse his extravagant theories. Although some conservative voices would later attribute this to superior British common sense, the fact was that Britain at the time had more serious threats and conspiracies to contend with. Tom Paine's Rights of Man, a far more incendiary and radicalising work than any of the Bavarian Illuminati's ‘secret texts', had sold over two hundred thousand copies in its cheap sixpenny edition, a number that far exceeded what until that point had been considered the entire book-buying public. Nor was the existence of malign conspiracies a matter to be theorised about or argued over. By the winter of 1797, the British government had estimated that the United Irishmen, an illegal society recruited by the swearing of a secret oath, had 279,896 men recruited and armed with home-made pikes: by May 1798, when the Great Rebellion broke, the conspiracy would erupt all too visibly from the shadows. With the British fleet convulsed by mutinies and the government struggling to contain mass protests and riots, it was hardly surprising that the doings of a long-disbanded Bavarian lodge seemed less than a pressing concern.
A ‘World Revolution’
But the nation where Robison's book had a profound and enduring impact was the United States of America. Here, the polarised forces of revolution and reaction that had swept Europe were playing out in a form that threatened to split the Founding Fathers and destroy their fledgling Constitution. While the likes of Thomas Jefferson saw themselves as cousins of a French republic that had thrown off the shackles of monarchy and with whom they traded amid British naval blockades, other founders such as Alexander Hamilton, whose Federalist party favoured a powerful state geared towards protecting the interests of its wealthy citizens, feared the infiltration of the radical ideals of the French revolution. In an overheated political milieu where accusations of conspiracy and treason were hurled from both sides, Proofs of a Conspiracy was siezed on eagerly by the Federalists as evidence of the hidden agenda that lurked behind fine-sounding slogans such as democracy, anti-slavery and the rights of man. Robison's words were repeated endlessly in New England pulpits and pamphlets through 1798 and 1799, and Jefferson was publicly accused of being a member of Weishaupt's Order, but the substance of the charges failed to stand up to political scrutiny.
The ‘Illuminati Scare' petered out and the Federalists lost power, never to regain it; yet the scare had touched a nerve deep within the American political mindset, and it has been woven into many subsequent paranoias and panics. Many on the isolationist right continue to believe Robison's theory to this day: the official John Birch Society line, for example, remains that Weishaupt's Illuminati ‘was the ancestor of the Communist movement and the model for modern subversive conspiratorial movements'.
Robison's ideas would continue to flourish, to be rediscovered and reinvented, and to influence modern politics in curious ways. In 1919 the doyenne of modern conspiracy theory, Nesta Webster, published the first of her many polemics against the ongoing ‘world revolution'. This had begun, she claimed, in the Bavarian lodge of the Illuminati; its first act had been the French revolution, the second the Soviet, with the third waiting in the wings. For Webster, however, the Illuminati were in turn a smokescreen: the true conspirators were the ‘Jewish peril' whose agenda had, she believed, been accurately exposed in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Although Webster later consigned herself to the margins by joining the British Union of Fascists, her support at the time was more broadly based, and she even won admiring citations in the journalism of Winston Churchill. ‘The conspiracy against civilization dates from the days of Weishaupt', Churchill wrote for the Sunday Herald in 1920; ‘as a modern historian Mrs. Webster has so ably shown, it played a recognisable role in the French revolution'.
“A Degree of Credulity…”
After Robison's death following a final medical crisis in 1805, John Playfair, mathematician and pioneer of modern geology, succeeded him to Edinburgh's chair of natural philosophy. Playfair later wrote a respectful memoir of his predecessor that focused on his scientific achievements, but was unable to avoid mention of the work for which he was best remembered. ‘The alarm excited by the French revolution', he suggested tactfully, ‘had produced in Mr. Robison a degree of credulity which was not natural to him'. It was a credulity, Playfair stressed, that had been shared by many who were unable to believe that the revolution had been a genuine mass movement reacting to the oppression of a tyrannical regime; they had clung to their belief that it must have been orchestrated by a small cell of fanatics, and that the lack of evidence for any such conspiracy was itself evidence for the conspirators' cunning in concealing their operations from public view.
There was much plain sense in Playfair's analysis, and it could equally be applied to many who subsequently came to believe in Robison's theories, and who continue to believe them today. Indeed, in the postscript to Proofs of a Conspiracy, Robison explicitly argues for his conviction that the social order is not broken, and has no need of any revolutionary scheme to fix it. ‘There is something that we call the behaviour of a gentleman', he insists, that ‘the plainest peasant or labourer will say of a man whom he esteems in a certain way'. Despite the mass protests, riots and mutinies of 1790s Britain, and the draconian emergency laws drafted to suppress dissent and free speech, he maintains that ‘I do not recollect hearing the lower ranks of the state venting much of their discontent against the Peers, and they seem to percieve pretty clearly the advantages arising from their prerogatives'. While Britain had become to many an oppressive, militarised state, waging war for profit abroad and gagging the protests of its own citizens at home, for Robison it remained a beacon of the ancient system of noblesse oblige, ‘the happy land, where the wisest use has been made of this propensity of the human heart'.
But if the shock of the modern world erupting into existence before his eyes had unbalanced Robison's judgement, it had also given him a vivid, even visionary perspective on the new dangers that might result from wresting politics away from the church and monarchy and placing it in the hands of the people. Forged in the same crucible as every modern political ideology from nihilism to conservatism, anarchy to military dictatorship, the Illuminati conspiracy has become a modern myth - not just in the dismissive sense that its factual basis evaporates under scrutiny, but in the more potent form of a shapeshifting narrative capable of adapting its meaning to accomodate new and unforeseen scenarios. Since the 1970s, it has been gleefully satirised as a baroque folly of conservative thought by counterculture figures from Robert Anton Wilson onwards, yet this has only increased its fame and mystique: Dan Brown's Angels and Demonsdemonstrates that today's readers will still lap up unreconstructed versions of Robison's theory in their millions. In popular culture and old-time religion, satire and nationalist politics, the Illuminati conspiracy still resonates with its timeless warning that the light of reason has its shadows, and even the most open and enlightened democracy can be manipulated by hidden hands.
Mike Jay is the author of 'Emperors of Dreams: Drugs in the Nineteenth Century' and 'The Atmosphere of Heaven: The Unnatural Experiments of Dr Beddoes and His Sons of Genius'. His website is http://mikejay.net.
Model engineering college has always made its mark on inter an intercollegiate quizzing competitions .They also have an official quizzing club ‘Illuminati’ which was founded by Sandeep menon in 2004. Since then their ultimate aim was to promote and continue its great quizzing tradition of the college.
Illuminati has been organizing one of the states biggest quizzing competitions. The first part itself was a great success and saw a great deal of participants. Now they are organizing the 3rd sequel of the ultimate quizzing championship “the illuminate quiz 2010 ‘.the quz is open for all school students and cross college teams. Quiz master will be Sadashiv . N ,alumnus of Model Engineering College, a great quizzer ,known across quizzing circles for his innovative and entertaining style of quizzing.
The illuminate quiz will be held at Model engineering college, Thrikkakkara, on 7 th august 12.30 pm .
The ultimate winner will get cash prize of Rs.20000. There will be second and third prizes will be 10000 and 5000 respectively. There is also an online quiz open to all with a prize money of rs 1000.Registration can be done online or by sending email to email@example.com
Play online quiz here
Last week a Chinese airport was temporarily closed, and flights suspended and diverted, because of a UFO. A number of people had apparently seen a white glowing object proceeding rapidly across the evening skies over Xiaoshan, near Hangzhou in Eastern China. Panic broke out – and the authorities decided to close the airport just in case.
I’m not sure that’s ever happened before, and – if not – it’s interesting that China should be the first country to experience it. This is the culmination of a fast-growing accretion of UFO stories in the People’s Republic, with four reported sightings in the last month (funny how the flag-wavers of scientific materialism often find they’re not so confident when push comes to shove).
In fact this trend has already found its literary depiction. Last year the (rather good) expatriate Chinese writer Xiaolu Guo published a novel called UFOs In Her Eyes, relating how the sighting of a flying saucer in a Chinese village leads to great publicity, large new developments and the ultimate destruction of the village and the lives of its poor inhabitants. All too plausible, one fears. But what is it that these people are seeing, if indeed the sightings are not just a reification of the wish for a different reality to the grotty one they’ve got?
Of course, the prosaic view is that it’s probably the People’s Liberation Army up to something we’re not supposed to know about. The Chinese system is noted for not letting the left hand know what the right hand is doing, which is probably why the civil authorities were initially in the dark. Indeed, the word is that the government now knows perfectly well what it was soaring over Xiaoshan last week, but there’s a military angle to it so it’s keeping quiet. However, with the airport closure, they’ll probably have to fudge up some kind of explanation before long.
But isn’t the idea of extraterrestrials landing in China rather an attractive one? After all, once they’ve worked out the Chinese for “take me to your leader” it’ll be an easy instruction to follow. And I’m sure the mummified corpse of the Great Helmsman in the Tiananmen Square mausoleum and the green eight-armed Klugg of the Mysterons will get on like a house on fire.
US Blogger Uncovers Fake BP Crisis Room Photo
Apparently BP is no more adept at doctoring photos than it is at plugging deep-sea oil leaks.
A blogger has noticed that the oil giant altered a photograph of its Houston crisis room, cutting and pasting three underwater images into a wall of video feeds from remotely operated undersea vehicles. The altered photo is displayed prominently on the company's Web site.
An enlarged version of the photograph reveals flaws in the editing job. One of the 10 images sticks down into the head of one of the people sitting in front of the wall, while another piece of the image is separated from the other side of the head by jagged white space. The right side of the same image also hangs down below the area on which the video feeds were projected.
John Aravosis pointed out the alterations Monday evening on his Americablog.com and observed, "I guess if you're doing fake crisis response, you might as well fake a photo of the crisis response center." The photo doctoring comes as BP has promised transparency in a bid to regain the public's trust.
Scott Dean, a spokesman for BP, said that there was nothing sinister in the photo alteration and provided the original unaltered version. He said that a photographer working for the company had inserted the three images in spots where the video screens were blank.
"Normally we only use Photoshop for the typical purposes of color correction and cropping," Dean said in an e-mail. "In this case they copied and pasted three ROV screen images in the original photo over three screens that were not running video feeds at the time."
Dean said BP usually has a couple remotely operated vehicles on the surface at any given time for maintenance.
"We will replace the Photoshopped version currently on bp.com with the original image tonight," he added. "We've instructed our post-production team to refrain from doing this in the future."
It's starting to look like Capricorn One over at BP. In addition to a photo of the oil spill crisis command center that BP faked on their Web site, an astute reader found yet another photo of the crisis response that has been faked by BP. This one is of the "top kill" effort to stop the spill a month or so ago. Above and below are parts of the photo that show that BP, yet again, inserted a fake screen behind its employees to make them look busier, or something.
How many other crisis response photos from BP have been faked? Did they fake any videos?
The BP live video feed only shows pre-well head cap and post-well head cap.
We are never shown the actual process of the cap being placed over the well.
How do we know if it's the real well being capped.
Watch a movie called "Wag The Dog"
Is it a Hollywood production?
Matt Simmons 2nd Oil Well Leaking In Gulf confirmed
TSUNAMI RUMORS: Scientists from St. Petersburg find high methane readings near oil disaster site,
NEW ORLEANS -- As coastal communities struggle with the ongoing oil spill crisis in the Gulf, there are reports that a second oil well could have been leaking for the past seven weeks.The report comes from an Alabama newspaper and a group called Skytruth. It says that an oil rig owned by New Orleans-based Taylor Energy has been leaking oil since April 30.The report says the leak is smaller than the BP oil spill, but the sheen can be seen for miles.
They're still lying about oil disaster (Pt.1)
They're still lying about oil disaster (Pt. 2)
The rig is a deepwater rig called the Ocean Saratoga.A satellite photo of the area shows a 10-mile slick coming from the leaking well.Taylor Energy released a statement saying that the rig was damaged during Hurricane Ivan six years ago and that the company has been working to clean up what has been spilled."We have been working consistently and successfully with MMS (Minerals Management Service) and the U.S. Coast Guard to address the resulting environmental impacts of one of the 10 most intense hurricanes ever recorded by the National Weather Service," the company said.
Gulf Oil Disaster tells a 'real ugly story'
Uploaded by Nolinknews. - News videos from around the world.
"University of California Berkeley engineering professor Robert Bea is one of the world's top experts on oil drilling disasters. Bea is an expert in offshore drilling and a high-level governmental adviser concerning disasters. He is also a member of the Deepwater Horizon Study Group. As the Times-Picayune reported yesterday: "Scientists have discovered four gas "seeps" at or near BP's blown-out Macondo well since Saturday..." Berkeley engineering professor Bob Bea has very little confidence in what’s been said publicly about the seeps. He’s troubled that we’re just now hearing about seeps three kilometers away, because a survey of the seabed conducted before BP drilled its well didn’t indicate anything like that. “There was nothing that indicated the presence of such a seep,” Bea said. “I wonder why we’re just now finding that out?”
Tj Deep Water Horizon Response Mission Report June3!11!2010final
BP has yet to release other ROV video that Bea’s study group requested more than a month ago about what may have been shots. 3 kilometers equals 1.9 miles, less than the 2 mile distance for the furthest seep discussed by the government to date. I told you that the "natural seep" argument was a red herring. Update: The government is now claiming that the seep 2 miles from the blowout is from another offshore oil facility. Specifically, Thad Allen made that claim today. As AP writes: "The federal government's oil spill chief says seepage detected two miles from BP's oil cap is coming from another well. There are two wells within two miles of BP's blowout, one that has been abandoned and another that is not in production." I have no idea whether or not this is true. If true, I do not yet know whether the other offshore oil facility is part of the Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) prospect or a neighboring prospect. If part of MC 252, it could well have been a well which BP previously abandoned. Specifically, as I pointed out last month: "The Deepwater Horizon blew up on April 20th, and sank a couple of days later. BP has been criticized for failing to report on the seriousness of the blow out for several weeks. However, as a whistleblower previously told 60 Minutes, there was an accident at the rig a month or more prior to the April 20th explosion: "[Mike Williams, the chief electronics technician on the Deepwater Horizon, and one of the last workers to leave the doomed rig] said they were told it would take 21 days; according to him, it actually took six weeks.
With the schedule slipping, Williams says a BP manager ordered a faster pace. "And he requested to the driller, 'Hey, let's bump it up. Let's bump it up.' And what he was talking about there is he's bumping up the rate of penetration. How fast the drill bit is going down," Williams said. Williams says going faster caused the bottom of the well to split open, swallowing tools and that drilling fluid called "mud." "We actually got stuck. And we got stuck so bad we had to send tools down into the drill pipe and sever the pipe," Williams explained. That well was abandoned and Deepwater Horizon had to drill a new route to the oil. It cost BP more than two weeks and millions of dollars." Here is MC252 (where the blown out well is located) shown in comparison with nearby sites:
Read the original story at CoyotePrime
5 Leaks Now Officially Confirmed By Thad Allen Oil Spill Chief
"BP Gulf Oil Disaster Update, 7/21/10: Lies, Deception" The government is now claiming that 5 seeps 2 miles from the blowout is from another offshore oil facility. Specifically, Thad Allen made that claim today. A: "The federal government's oil spill chief says seepage detected two miles from BP's oil cap is coming from another well. There are two wells within two miles of BP's blowout, one that has been abandoned and another that is not in production." The leaks are like the leaks you have with your car, nothing to worry about. The government's oil spill chief tried to tamp down fears Tuesday that BP's capped well is buckling under the pressure, saying seepage detected along the sea floor less than two miles away is coming from an older well no longer in production. (July 20)
Obamanation are sockpuppets for BP Oil Disaster Cover-up
Corexit is one of a number of dispersants, that are toxic, that are used to atomize the oil and force it down the water column so that it’s invisible to the eye. In this case, these dispersants were used in massive quantities, almost two million gallons so far, to hide the magnitude of the spill and save BP money. And the government—both EPA, NOAA, etc.—have been sock puppets for BP in this cover-up. Now, by hiding the amount of spill, BP is saving hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars in fines, and so, from day one, there was tremendous economic incentive to use these dispersants to hide the magnitude of the gusher that’s been going on for almost three months.
We have people, wildlife—we have dolphins that are hemorrhaging. People who work near it are hemorrhaging internally. And that’s what dispersants are supposed to do. EPA now is taking the position that they really don’t know how dangerous it is, even though if you read the label, it tells you how dangerous it is. And, for example, in the Exxon Valdez case, people who worked with dispersants, most of them are dead now. The average death age is around fifty. It’s very dangerous, and it’s an economic—it’s an economic protector of BP, not an environmental protector of the public.
Who saves money by using these toxic dispersants? Well, it’s BP. But then the next question—I’ve only seen one article that describes it—who owns BP? And I think when you look and see who owns BP, you find that it’s the majority ownership, a billion shares, is a company called BlackRock that was created, owned and run by a gentleman named Larry Fink. And Vanity Fair just did recently an article about Mr. Fink and his connections with Mr. Geithner, Mr. Summers and others in the administration. So I think what’s needed, we now know that there’s a cover-up. Dispersants are being used. Congress, at least three Congress folks—Congressman Markey, Congressman Nadler and Senator Mikulski—are on the case. And I think the media now has to follow the money, just as they did in Watergate, and tell the American people who’s getting money for poisoning the millions of people in the Gulf.
The sole purpose in the Gulf for dispersants is to keep a cover-up going for BP to try to hide the volume of oil that has been released and save them hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars of fines. That’s the purpose of using the dispersants, not to protect the public health or environment. Quite the opposite.
Source: Intel Hub
The enemy of the Illuminati, the Nephilim, is humanity. The following quotes reflect this and subsequent monumental human rights violations world wide. These violations are either MYHOPS (Make it happen on purpose) or LYHOPS (Let it happen on purpose), each with ultiamate aim of reducing the human population.
Depopulation is a racist based agenda that advances white supremacy.
Covert, high-tech weaponry have been resarched and developed for decades, now refined and deployed to reach the Illuminati's depopulation goal, part of the New Worold Order.
“The first task is population control at home. How do we go about it? Many of my colleagues feel that some sort of compulsory birth regulation would be necessary to achieve such control. One plan often mentioned involves the addition of temporary sterilants to water supplies or staple food. Doses of the antidote would be carefully rationed by the government to produce the desired population size.” — Prof Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb, p.135
“If I were reincarnated I would wish to be returned to earth as a killer virus to lower human population levels.” - Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, patron of the World Wildlife Fund
“If the world pollution situation is not critical at the moment, it is as certain as anything can be that the situation will become increasingly intolerable within a very short time. The situation can be controlled, and even reversed; but it demands cooperation on a scale and intensity beyond anything achieved so far.“ – The Fairfield Osborne Lecture by HRH Prince Philip
“I don’t claim to have any special interest in natural history, but as a boy I was made aware of the annual fluctuations in the number of game animals and the need to adjust the cull to the size of the surplus population.“ – Preface to Down to Earth by HRH Prince Philip
“A total population of 250-300 million people, a 95% decline from present levels, would be ideal.”
- Ted Turner, CNN founder and UN supporter
www.tankerenemy.com www.tanker-enemy.tv www.tankerenemy.com Original video here: www.youtube.com Channel: www.youtube.com DOWNLOAD abd SHARE: www.archive.org tankerenemy.blogspot.com A pilot shots a chemical plane from his cockpit: the video shows an aircraft that spread chemtrails over Canada from the nozzles. The footage is the irrefutable proof of a chemical and clandestine operation that a bold pilot offers to the public in order to demonstrate that chemtrails are real. The "smoke" we can see is neither a fuel dumping nor a contrail. The chemtrails, in fact, is iridescent too. Donâ€™t listen to hoaxers who repeat that this document is false or similar lies. The author of this important video writes to Tanker Enemy: "Nice job tanker enemy... I like the enhancements. Btw, I took the video while we were flying over Canada. Thanks for translating the video so more people will understand what's going on. I'll post more as I see them".
“Childbearing should be a punishable crime against society, unless the parents hold a government license. All potential parents should be required to use contraceptive chemicals, the government issuing antidotes to citizens chosen for childbearing.” - David Brower, first Executive Director of the Sierra Club
“In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill … All these dangers are caused by human intervention and it is only through changed attitudes and behaviour that they can be overcome. The real enemy, then, is humanity itself.” - Club of Rome, The First Global Revolution, pg.75 (Scribd pg. 85)
The Earth Charter—Companion to Agenda 21
For those who may have dismissed the notion of a UN Agenda for a New World Religion used to usher in sweeping anti-constitutional environmental agreements, I offer the following.
“The real goal of the Earth Charter is that it will in fact become like the Ten Commandments.”
“Do not do unto the environment of others what you do not want done to your own environment....My hope is that this charter will be a kind of Ten Commandments, a 'Sermon on the Mount', that provides a guide for human behavior toward the environment in the next century.”
On September the 9th, 2001 a celebration of the Earth Charter was held at Shelburne Farms Vermont for the unveiling of the Earth Charter's final resting place. This "Ark of Hope" will be presented to the United Nations along with its contents in June of 2002. It is hoped that the United Nations will endorse the Earth Charter document on this occasion; the tenth anniversary of the UNCED Earth Summit in Rio.
Placed within the Ark, along with the Earth Charter, were various items called "Temenos Books" and "Temenos Earth Masks." Temenos is a concept adopted by Carl Jung to denote a magic circle, a sacred space where special rules and energies apply. Some of the Temenos Books were created within this magic circle by children, who filled them with visual affirmations for Mother Earth. Fashioned with the "earth elements", the Temenos Earth Masks were also worn and created by children.
Maurice Strong and the "Agenda"In 1992 Maurice Strong was the Secretary General of the historic United Nations (UNCED) Earth conference in Rio. This gathering featured an international cast of powerful figures in the environmental movement, government, business, and entertainment. Maurice Strong's wife Hannah, was involved in the NGO alternative meeting at the Summit called Global Forum '92. The Dalai Lama opened the meeting and, according to author Gary Kah, to ensure the success of the forum, Hanne Strong held a three-week vigil with Wisdomkeepers, a group of "global transformationalists." Through round-the-clock sacred fire, drumbeat, and meditation, the group helped hold the "energy pattern" for the duration of the summit.
It was hoped that an Earth Charter would be the result of this event. This was not the case, however an international agreement was adopted – Agenda 21 – which laid down the international "sustainable development" necessary to form a future Earth Charter agreement. Maurice Strong hinted at the overtly pagan agenda proposed for a future Earth Charter, when in his opening address to the Rio Conference delegates he said, "It is the responsibility of each human being today to choose between the force of darkness and the force of light." [note: Alice Bailey, and Blavatsky before her, used these terms often. Their writings state that the 'force of darkness' are those who adhere to the 'out-dated' Judeo-Christian faith; those who continue along their 'separative' paths of the one true God. The 'force of light' (Lucifer), in their view, is the inclusive new age doctrine of a pagan pantheistic New World Religion. In the New Age of Aquarius there will be no room for the 'force of darkness' and 'separativeness'.] "We must therefore transform our attitudes and adopt a renewed respect for the SUPERIOR LAWS OF DIVINE NATURE," Strong finished with unanimous applause from the crowd.
Despite the disappointing setback of no official agreement toward a "peoples Earth Charter", Maurice Strong forged ahead, with Rockefeller backing, to form his Earth Council organization for the express purpose of helping governments implement UNCED's sustainable development which Agenda 21 had outlined. Agenda 21 was perhaps the biggest step taken to facilitate any future "enforcement" of a patently pagan Earth Charter. According to Strong "the Charter will stand on it's own. It will be in effect, to use an Anglo-Saxon term, the Magna Carta of the people around the Earth. But, it will also, we hope, lead to action by the governments through the United Nations."
ARK OF OUR DEMISE?
“Cosmos is my God. Nature is my God.”—Mikhail Gorbachev, on the PBS Charlie Rose Show, Oct. 23, 1996
“A post-Christian belief system is taking over – one that sees the earth as a living being mythologically, as Gaia, Earth Mother – with mankind as her consciousness... Such worship of the universe is properly called cosmolatry.”—Donna Steichen, Ungodly Rage, p. 237
Inside this ' Ark of Hope' the Earth Charter is handwritten on papyrus paper, and ready for presentation to the United Nations; the Ark along with it's Gaia "Ten Commandments" – a new covenant to which every nation must adhere. Each panel represents one of the five traditional elements of pagan worship: Water, Fire, Earth, Air and Spirit. According to the Ark of Hope website, the Ark's dimensions are 49" X 32" X 32" and it was crafted out of a single Sycamore plank. The obvious meaning behind the Ark of Hope is to mock God's own Ten Commandments and the Ark of the Covenant. In this context the choice of Sycamore wood for the Ark of Hope's construction is a revealing one. The Sycamore tree was sacred to most all the pagan religions in the middle east during biblical times, and in Egypt especially: To the Egyptians the Sycamore was a healing tree; The tomb of Osiris was built in Sycamore wood, and shaded by Sycamore trees; Burial in Sycamore coffins was a symbolic return into the womb of the mother goddess; The deceased hoped to live in the Sycamore tree. In the book of the dead there are examples of a letter the deceased would write to the Goddess of the Tree, containing a prayer so that she would provide water and air. 1
The New Age and the Radical-Left 'Enlightenment'
The "For Love of Earth" day-long celebrations at Shelburne Farms Vermont began with an early morning pilgrimage during which 2000 or so participants, led by Satish Kumar, walked to the "great barn" where they were greeted by the sounds of the "Sun Song" played by musician Paul Winter. The Pagan festivities continued with the words of Dr. Jane Goodall, Satish Kumar and organizer Dr. Steven C. Rockefeller. The Earth worshippers were treated to dance, music and paintings of several Vermont artists, after which they joined hands and offered an "Earth prayer" of "reverence" and "commitment" to Mother Earth and the "Ark of Hope".
Satish Kumar, who led the early morning pilgrimage at Shelburne Farms, is an influencial advocate of Gaia. Kumar says that "contemporary thinkers of the green movement are collectively developing an ecological world-view." The Earth Charter is the green movement's crowning achievement toward this holistic world-view, and the practical means by which all of us will soon be held accountable to "Divine Nature". According to Satish Kumar,2 this pagan view has five ingredients: Gaia (James Lovelock), Deep Ecology (Arne Naess), Permaculture (Bill Mollison), Bioregionalism (Gary Snyder et al.), and Creation Spirituality (Matthew Fox). "Creation Spirituality" is what had, undoubtedly, taken place at the Shelburne Farms Earth Charter celebrations. In the words of Steven W. Mosher, president of Population Research Institute, "Gaia is the New Age term for Mother Earth. The New Age believers hold that the earth is a sentient super-being, kind of goddess, deserving of worship and, some say, human sacrifice. Compared to Gaia worship, the simple animism of primitive cultures is wholesome."
Musician Paul Winter also has deep roots within the green movement and "creation spirituality." He has performed concerts at the Cathedral St. John the Divine in New York City, on the solstice and equinox, for well over twenty years. These pagan festivals, in a supposedly christian church nonetheless, are generously sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation and a new age organization called the Lindisfarne Institute – the latter of which has its headquarters in the Cathedral. Maurice Strong is also a member of Lindisfarne (publishers of G-A-I-A, a way of knowing) along with Gaia theory biologist James Lovelock, and admitted Luciferian David Spangler, among others. Paul Winters' most recent concert at St. John the Divine was for the annual Earth Mass, on 7 October. 3 The fact that this annual October 7th Earth Mass coincides with the hindu Holy Day of Dassehra (worship of the Great Divine Mother) cannot be a coincidence. Winter and bandmates play a tune called Missa Gaia as part of the Feast of St. Francis. The Pope once attended the Feast of St. Francis at St. John the Divine in 1986. Stressing the unity of all the world's religions, John Paul II happily shared the platform with a Tibetan Lama, a Hindu swami, a Native American medicine man, and a Maori high priest.
The New American Insider Report of January 23, 1995 4 writes that the historic Episcopal Cathedral of Saint John the Divine "has long been a center of New Age and radical-left 'enlightenment' and high-brow Establishment 'culture'." Author Gary Kah reports, in his well-documented book The New World Religion, that the Cathedral of St. John the Divine displays "a female Christ on the cross, complete with shapely hips and full breasts." Also in the same issue of The New American there is a list of donors to the Cathedral: Mr. and Ms. Steven Rockefeller is among them, along with Mr. Robert de Rothschild; David Rockefeller Jr.; Mrs. Mary C. Rockefeller; Mr. and Mrs. Laurance Spellman Rockefeller; Rockefeller Center Properties Inc.; The Rockefeller Group Inc. and many elite-of-the-elite organizations such as J.P. Morgan & Co.; Chase Manhattan Bank; Goldman, Sachs & Co.; Hearst Corporation; CBS, Inc. and even, mysteriously, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), among others.
Earth Charter Commission Co-Chairs
The Earth Charter Initiative was launched in 1994 by Maurice Strong, his newly formed Earth Council and Mikhail Gorbachev, acting in his capacity as president of Green Cross International. In 1997, the Earth Council and Green Cross International formed an Earth Charter Commission to give oversight to the process.
Sri ChinmoyIndian Mystic, and outspoken advocate of the United Nations' "spiritual mission."
UN Meditation Room
The U.N. Meditation Room is built in the shape of a truncated pyramid. In the center is an altar made out of magnetite, the largest natural piece of magnetite ever mined. For meditation purposes it is probably the most ideal spot on the planet, since the magnetite altar has its foundation straight down, built into the bedrock of the land below; tapping into the energies of the earth itself. The mysterious mural also helps the worshippers tune into esoteric energies, and helps facilitate a state of altered consciousness.
- Kamla Chowdhry, India
- Mikhail Gorbachev, Russia
- Mercedes Sosa, Argentina
- Maurice Strong, Canada
- Amadou Toumani Toure, Mali
- A.T. Anyaratne, Sri Lanka
- Princess Basma Bint Talai, Jordan
- Leonardo Boff, Brazil
- Pierre Calame, France
- Severn Cullis-Suzuki, Canada
- Wakako Hironaka, Japan
- John Hoyt, U.S.A.
- Ruud Lubbers, The Netherlands
- Wangari Maathai, Kenya
- Elizabeth May, Canada
- Federico Mayor, Spain
- Shridath Ramphal, Guyana
- Henriette Rasmussen, Greenland
- Steven Rockefeller, U.S.
- Mohamed Sahoun, Algeria
- Awraham Soetendorp, The Netherlands
- Pauline Tangiora, New Zealand
- Erna Witoelar, Indonesia
The Global Transformational Movement
A final version of the Earth Charter was issued by the Earth Charter Commission in March 2000. The Earth Charter "was drafted in coordination with a hard law treaty that is designed to provide an integrated legal framework for all environment development law and policy." This hard law treaty is called the International Covenant on Environment and Development and is being prepared by the Commission on Environmental Law at the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), a behemoth agency which oversees 700+ governmental agencies worldwide.
The Earth Charter, consisting of 16 principles, has its roots in the values of the Transformational Movement. Jan Roberts, president of the Institute for Ethics and Meaning describes this Transformational Movement as a paradigm shift from individualism, self-interest and separativeness, to unity, wholeness and community. Steven C. Rockefeller was the prime candidate for the leadership role as co-chair of the Earth Charter Steering Committee, the Drafting Committee and co-chair of the final Earth Charter Commission. Besides being a professor of Religion and Ethics at Middlebury College, expounding the virtues of "creation-centered theology," in his capacity as trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, his family's resources ensured the success of the project.
It's clear that the global transformationalists are promoting the Earth Charter as the "new scripture." At the presentation of the Ark, and its "new gospel" contents, we can expect that it will be endorsed by the U.N. The halls of the United Nations has long been a haven for New Age one-world religion spirituality. Former Secretary-Generals like Dag Hammarskjold (founder of the U.N. Meditation Room), U Thant and former Assistant Secretary-General Robert Muller have long been outspoken advocates of a new pantheistic global spirituality, using the U.N. as a vehicle to spread their doctrine.
The United Nations even has their own in-house prophet, Sri Chinmoy. This 70 year-old indian mystic is the official Spiritual Advisor to the United Nations. For the past 23 years he has offered prayer and meditation meetings for anyone to attend every Tuesday and Friday at the U.N. 5 Sri Chinmoy claims to have been Thomas Jefferson in a previous life, and he also claims to be the Spiritual Brother to Jesus Christ. 6 Chinmoy's disciples claim he's one of a handful of fully enlightened beings on the planet. Some disciples go so far as to claim he is an avatar, a living God. They meditate to a print of his face.
Perhaps the final resting place for the "Ark of Hope" will be in the United Nation's Holy-of-Holies, the U.N. meditation room. "We have the UN Meditation Room, which is visited by hundreds of thousands of visitors a year," Robert Muller explains in his book Genesis: Shaping a Global Spirituality. "We have also a UN Meditation Group led by an Indian Mystic. One could tell several moving stories of the spiritual transformation the UN has caused, to the point that this little speck on earth is becoming a holy ground." (quoted in The New World Religion, by Gary Kah, p. 310)
To Sri Chinmoy and Robert Muller, world peace will ultimately depend "on divine and cosmic government" and an "alliance between all major religions and the U.N." Muller has gone so far as to call the U.N. "the body of Christ." The United Nations "will be the last word in human perfection," Sri Chinmoy proclaims, it will "stand as the pinnacle of divine enlightenment." 7
The Earth Charter stresses that man is his own saviour. By saving "mother earth" we will once again return to an idyllic Garden of Eden. But instead of worshipping the Creator, the New Age Aquarian conspirators wish to plunge us headlong into a creation-worship new world religion. "Little by little a planetary prayer book is thus being composed by an increasingly united humanity seeking its oneness," Robert Muller preaches. "Once again, but this time on a universal scale, humankind is seeking no less than its reunion with 'divine,' its transcendence into higher forms of life. Hindus call our earth Brahma, or God, for they rightly see no difference between our earth and the divine. This ancient simple truth is slowly dawning again upon humanity, as we are about to enter our cosmic age and become what we were always meant to be: the planet of God."
“Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools. And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.”Romans 1:22-25 (KJV)
(Note: The following is only an extract. For the full document, go here.)
“The Earth Charter: Building a Global Culture of Peace” Steven C. Rockefeller The Earth Charter Community Summits Tampa, Florida, September 29, 2001
This is a good time for interfaith dialogue involving Christians, Jews and Muslims and members of other religious traditions as well. The Earth Charter can be used as a catalyst for exploring common ethical values in these exchanges.
A year from now, the United Nations will convene the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and our government representatives should know that we want the United States to play a creative leadership role at this critical world meeting.
Thousands of local, national, regional, and international organizations have now endorsed the Earth Charter. The most recent endorsement has come from the Parliament of the World’s Religions.
Invite your organization to consider endorsing the Earth Charter, if you have not already done so. The more support we have from civil society and local government, the greater the chance of endorsement by the United Nations General Assembly in 2002.
In my home state of Vermont, the Earth Charter is being transported across the state from town to town in a beautiful, handcrafted Ark of Hope by people walking in a spirit of peace. In addition to the Earth charter, the Ark of Hope contains the prayers and poems of many Vermonters. The global challenges before us are great, but if we unite behind the kind of vision affirmed in the Earth Charter, there are grounds for hope........ With reverence for the mystery of being and with reverence for life, let us resolve here today to commit ourselves anew to this great work.
The idea of a space elevator has been around since the late 1800's, but despite big dreams and years of research, the low-cost, easy access to orbit that a space elevator promises is likely still decades away. The biggest problem rests on the fact that no one has been able to successfully manufacture long ribbons made of ultra-light, ultra-strong carbon nanotubes, the only known material that is strong enough for a space elevator. But entrepreneur Michael Laine believes a lunar elevator – a space elevator from the surface of the Moon – could be created with materials that are available now. With more research and the right amount of capital, Laine says a lunar elevator could be built within a decade.
While Laine said he is still "emotionally very invested" in the concept of a space elevator based on Earth, for now he has shifted his focus to the lunar elevator. "There was a question of where was I going to put my time," he told Universe Today, "and being able to do this soon – perhaps within 5-7 years and not some mythic 15-25 years in the future is enticing."
Since the Moon's gravity is only one sixth that of Earth, it drastically reduces the requirements of the ribbon. A material that is available now, a synthetic polymer material called Zylon (poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole) which has high strength and excellent thermal stability, could be used.
Additionally, the components to build the elevator that would be sent to the Moon would be relatively lightweight, so a smaller rocket would do the job. "The physical requirements of the system look like you could use a standard Atlas or Delta rocket to launch the components." Laine said. "That's a big deal that you don't need to build something like a Saturn V."
While Laine said he believes a lunar elevator in 5-7 years is feasible, he didn't want to go on record as saying it could be built in such a short time frame without adding some major caveats.
The biggest hurdle could be getting access to the 6 cubic meters of the Zylon material. "That actually could be the biggest challenge," Laine said.
Additionally, there are still an untold amount of unknowns about building such a system. "I used to say for the space elevator that we still didn't know all the questions, let alone the answers," Laine said, "and that is even more true for the lunar elevator."
The other hurdle is money. But a lunar elevator might actually be cheaper to build, initially, than a space elevator from Earth.
An Earth-based elevator is essentially a long cable – perhaps 100,000km (62,000 miles) long — that is anchored on Earth at one end with a counterweight at the other end (a large satellite, for example) in (beyond) geosynchronous orbit. Gravity and centripetal acceleration keeps the cable, or ribbon rigid and a small elevator, or "Lifter," can move up the elevator at a fraction of the energy and financial expenditure of launching an object into orbit. Once the elevator is built, using the elevator to put things in orbit could cost hundreds of dollars per pound, versus the $7,000 per pound it takes to launch satellites with the space shuttle.
A lunar elevator would use a ribbon at least 50,000 kilometers (31,000 miles) long extending through the Earth-Moon L1 LaGrange point from an anchor point near the center of the visible part of Earth's moon. A smaller Atlas or Delta rocket could send the components the L1 point, and the Zylong ribbon would be spooled from that point towards the Moon and the Earth.
"You would use the Atlas hardware as part of your counter weight," said Laine. "But that's a very small counterweight, which means that your cargo that you are taking up and down from the Moon is going to be small. This is not like the Earth elevator where you were going to be putting 100 tons a week into space. This is a very small system, capable of transporting 200-250 kilos."
And that's what Laine has in mind for the first lunar elevator: a sample return mission. "It would be a lunar sample return mission within the next 5-7 years, for what we think is a pretty reasonable price," he said.
Once the initial ribbon is up and running, Laine said you could send up more ribbon to strengthen it, using same concepts for the Earth elevator, such as multiple stages of construction and ribbons that are added to it.
Of course, none of this – including the money – is trivial. Although the first string might be less expensive than an Earth elevator, additional construction of the lunar elevator would be fairly expensive, and take more time compared to the Earth elevator. "Once the first string on the Earth elevator is built, you work from the bottom and go up, whereas on the lunar elevator you'll have to send it from Earth. So that part starts adding up in a hurry," Laine said. "We don't have a complete estimate on price yet but an Atlas or Delta, that is a known and reasonable price tag. We're not talking about billions and billions of dollars here — maybe hundreds of millions — but not billions."
Still, he has a vision and a plan.
"It is not a flag and footprints vision of going to the Moon," Laine said, "but it goes to the heart of the new NASA budget and focus of developing technologies and infrastructure so that things can happen. And that's what we hope we can do by developing this ribbon. And then we jumpstart the process of creating an outpost or a research lab. We've played with the idea of using the counterweight at the end and using a habitat, something like a Bigelow (Laine stressed he hasn't talked with the Bigelow people yet about this) and if we could tie a couple of modules together they would make a great counterweight and that puts you in an interesting position. Some people don't think going to the Moon is worthwhile if you are going to Mars, but a lot of people think a fuel depot makes sense. We could be a great fuel depot for some of those long duration missions because we want that extra mass. In the Earth elevator, the counterweight is basically dead mass. For the lunar elevator, it becomes a working environment. So some people go to the modules, some people go to the Moon, some people go to Mars using this as a refueling and construction station. Once it is up and running you have safe reliable access to the moon, for the price of a Delta or an Atlas. That's huge."
But Laine said he doesn't want to give anyone the impression that he and others interested in this concept have everything figured out. "We've studied this enough to know that it is feasible and interesting and likely to happen sooner rather than later, which is why we're tackling it."
So, Laine and a core group of space elevator enthusiasts are starting a series of workshops to discuss this concept and tackle some of the significant questions with anyone who is interested and who might have the brainpower and spirit to understand and undertake such a project.
The first workshop is July 29-August 1 in Seattle Washington. See this link for more information
"I'm a big believer in connecting with community, so if artists and musicians, want to come, that's great," Laine said. "Engineers, science guys, rocket guys would be helpful. But politicians and marketing people are equally important to answer the big questions of where we should focus our time and efforts."
There is also a space elevator conference August 13-15 at the Microsoft Conference Center in Redmond, Washington. Find more details at this link.
Laine started a space elevator company in 2003, LiftPort, which fell to financial problems in 2007. He sees the lunar elevator as a possible rebirth for the company, which once had 14 full-time employees. "This is a renaissance project, a rising again," he said. "I'm applying a lot of what I learned on the Earth elevator to this new vision. While tackling the Earth elevator, all my money came from real estate, and I had plenty of money for my needs. But this time is different. For us to build this thing we are going to have to earn our way."
"But I think it could be phenomenally lucrative, too," Laine continued. "We are going to make discoveries along the way that will lead to products and services that are not related to going to the Moon. We think there is a solid value proposition as part of this."
Space boffins believe they may be on the verge of discovering a vast, hidden network of tunnels beneath the surface of the Moon.
The tunnels aren’t thought to be the work of long-extinct (or perhaps still surviving) intelligent moon aliens, perhaps driven to adopt a subterranean existence by a notional disappearing atmosphere aeons ago. Nor is any involvement by Tibetans, Elvis or others seeking a secluded dwelling far from prying human eyes suspected.
Instead, top moonologists think that they may be on the track of “lava tubes” not dissimilar to those of Earth. A lava tube, unsurprisingly, is a tube in solid surrounding rock along which at some point liquid lava has flowed (or is still flowing, in some Earthly cases).