Lightning around the Iceland volcano
Operation volcano! Navy armada ready to pick up thousands of stranded Britons after France scuppers DIY rescue mission
By Vanessa Allen and Ray Massey Last updated at 11:59 PM on 18th April 2010 | An Armada of Royal Navy ships is poised to rescue Britons stranded by the aviation shutdown. | The dramatic operation would carry thousands of families home from Channel ports in a rerun of the 1940 Dunkirk evacuation. | Security Minister Lord West said commercial ships and amphibious landing craft could also be drafted into service. | Coming home: Britons rescued from France by TV presenter Dan Snow.
WASHINGTON — As ash from an Iceland volcano snarled air travel across Europe, experts said an eruption of the 'supervolcano' at the Yellowstone national park would be deadly, though it is unlikely any time soon.
"The next major eruption for Yellowstone, if you have a guess, is probably thousands of years in the future," Bill Burton, a vulcanologist with the US Geological Survey, told AFP.
The volcano, dubbed a 'supervolcano' because of its enormous strength, has not erupted for hundreds of thousands of years.
It last erupted some 640,000 years ago, and the two prior eruptions were 1.3 million and 2.1 million years ago.
That track record -- a major event approximately each 730,000 years -- suggests the volcano won't erupt again for another 90,000 years, though Burton noted that there is no real certainty when it comes to volcanic activity.
"You cannot be totally complacent and assume nothing is going to happen," he said.
For vulcanologists, the key is continued study of the history of individual sites. "The more we know about their past behavior makes you a little more confident about what's going to happen next," Burton said.
Some volcanos erupt regularly, every ten years, usually providing signs of instability in the run up to an eruption. Others lie dormant for extremely long periods.
Experts will examine a volcano's history of eruptions, but also use surveillance techniques and technology including GPS to detect whether the volcano is "swelling" because of pressure created by magma.
"If the seismicity and the GPS start showing signs of magma moving then its time to think about gas coming out," Burton said. "So we keep track of all of those things and the more data... you have, the better."
An eruption at Yellowstone, though unlikely in the near future, would have devastating consequences, Burton said.
"The impact would be severe," and would likely send large quantities of volcanic material into the atmosphere.
Yellowstone's last eruption, some 640,000 years ago, sent an estimated 1,000 cubic kilometers of ash and volcanic rock over the American west and parts of the Midwest, spreading as far south as Mexico.
The eruption was some 3,000 times stronger than that at Mount Vesuvius in the year 79, and around 1,000 times stronger than the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens in the US northwest.
A similarly violent eruption at Yellowstone could decimate the population, producing "crop failure (and) water contaminations," Burton said.
The biggest volcanic eruption in the last two centuries, the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, sent 160 cubic kilometers of volcanic debris into the atmosphere and caused an overall drop in global temperatures for the year -- a "year without a summer," Burton said.
The disaster also killed at least 71,000 people.
The eruption of the Toba volcano in Sumatra some 73,000 years ago, an event 1,000 times more powerful than the 1980 Mount St Helens eruption, may even have wiped out most of the human race, according to a theory based on fossil evidence.
More to Iceland Volcano than Made Public
More to Iceland Volcano than Made Public
by Mitch Battros - Earth Changes Media
The damage caused by Iceland volcano "Eyjafjallajokull," could be far more damaging than is being reported. It has happened before, and it could happen again. The last large eruption was in 1695 with consequences lasting seven years and brought Scotland to its knees.
Below is a just-released video showing what it looks like to drive in Iceland. If this is a major "Eyjafjallajokull" eruption, parts of the United Kingdom may look similar. Not only does such an event change the world's climate for 3 or 4 years, it could cause a financial collapse of the European Union. If they go down --- everybody goes down.
New Released Video: Click Here
Last Major Eruption
Outpourings of volcanic ash from Iceland in the 17th Century contributed to a period of famine and hardship in Scotland, according to experts. A major eruption in 1695 saw large parts of the country affected by a "sulphurous fog."
Prof Alastair Dawson of the University of Aberdeen, writing in the latest Scottish Environment Protection Agency magazine said it came at a time of climatic change. Dust in the atmosphere dimmed sunlight causing crops to fail.
Prof Dawson says: "We cannot be sure what the precise effect of this eruption was on Scotland's climate but we do know that the years between AD 1693-1700 were characterized by widespread famine." They later became known as the 'King William's Dear Years'.
FULL ARTICLE - CLICK HERE
Source: Times Online
THE clash between molten rock and ice on the surface of the Iceland volcano has produced ash so fine that radar and other aircraft instruments are unable to detect it.
The near-invisibility of the ash swirling in vast clouds over Britain and Europe has magnified the confusion and trepidation brought about by the eruption of Eyjafjallajokull.
Now the uncertainty is set to increase still further, with scientists warning that, based on the volcano’s historic behaviour, the eruption could be “just the beginning”. The mountain may continue to blow out ash sporadically for a year or more.
Even more worryingly, Katla, the neighbouring volcano, is groaning from the eruption under pressure equivalent to 3,000 mini-earthquakes a day of up to 3.1 on the Richter scale. Katla is some five times bigger than Eyjafjallajokull and would erupt in a similar way — but spewing out far bigger plumes of ash.
This does not mean British airspace will be closed for a year, but it could herald months of repeated bouts of disruption, depending largely on the weather.
Yesterday a British scientist described how even modern aircraft technology cannot detect the clouds of ash.
Guy Gratton, head of Cranfield University’s facility for airborne atmospheric measurement, took a flight with fellow researchers to gather data.
“Speaking as an aeronautical engineer, I would not want to be putting an airliner up there at the moment,” said Gratton.
“There is a lot of fairly nasty stuff there that we were running away from, knowing what we did. We have standard airline instruments on the aeroplane, we have got a storm scope and we have got a weather radar and they were looking straight through it.
“Neither of those were seeing any of this stuff. It was only our specialist cloud physics instruments that were able to see the particles.”
The ash is formed by the sudden contact between molten rock and ice. As the lava is pushed up through the vent of Eyjafjallajokull at 700-1,100C, it shoots through the glacier of the same name.
A glass-like rind forms but shatters under pressure from below. Jets of steam and gas then carry it into the atmosphere in tiny flakes less than 1mm across.
David Rotherly, a vulcanologist at the Open University, said: “When you put cold on a hot rock it shatters, creating tiny fragments. Also, when water turns to steam there’s a big expansion which propels the particles even higher.”
Jet engines suck in so much air that it carries with it enough ash to wreck the mechanism. Even though the ash becomes invisible as it disperses, planes have to be grounded as has happened regularly during eruptions in Alaska, northern Japan and Sicily.
Ash has been spewing out since March 20, when a 500-yard gash opened on the shoulder of the volcano.
Bjorn Eriksson, who runs the Hotel Ranga in Hella, a few miles southwest, said locals had been expecting it.
“We’ve been experiencing earthquakes since January,” he said. “At first just one or two a day, but increasing rapidly.” A few days after the first opening, another vent broke four miles up the mountain, 600ft beneath the glacial ice cap.
Eyjafjallajokull has erupted twice in the past 1,100 years, the last time in December 1821. That continued for more than a year until January 1823.
Andrew Hooper, an expert on Iceland’s volcanoes at Delft University in Holland, said: “There is a very real possibility that the volcano will continue to erupt on and off for months.
“Eruptions of Eyjafjallajokull in 1821-3 and 1612 were followed in short shrift by eruptions of Katla, with a far greater potential for disrupting travel and the climate.”
Hooper added: “There are no signs yet of the eruption ending, even temporarily.”
In addition, the wind that has been blowing the ash across Europe is not forecast to change, nor is there much sign of heavy rain which would bring a lot down from the sky.
Hooper warned that the eruption may be only a taste of the future if climate change causes ice sheets to melt further. As the last ice age ended, volcanic activity in Iceland increased 30-fold because of reduced pressure on the earth’s mantle.
“Since the 19th century the ice caps in Iceland have been shrinking yet further,” said Hooper. “This will lead to additional magma generation, so we should expect more frequent voluminous eruptions in the future.”
It seems there's a lot going on that we're not being told about, for whatever reasons I could only guess. TPTB have no interest in us, only in looking after themselves.
That's been shown time and time again,but at least here at RMN no one is going to be caught out sleeping.
The following I found to be more than interesting;
Piers Corbyn, astrophysicist of WeatherAction.com long range weather & climate forecasters today announced important findings connecting solar-lunar effects on earthquakes and volcanoes and warned that the major solar explosion (Coronal Mass Ejection) of 13th April will increase risk of: more earthquakes, renewed eruption of Iceland’s volcano & extreme weather events world-wide as it hits Earth in his predicted Solar-Lunar Impact periods 18-24 April.
This could also explain the following;
RARE SHUTTLE RE-ENTRY: On Monday morning, April 19th, space shuttle Discovery will make a rare "descending node" overflight of the continental United States en route to landing in Florida. Many towns and cities in the country's heartland are near the ground track:
A 6.3 Magnitude Earthquake Strikes Papua New Guinea
A 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck Papua New Guinea Sunday morning, the U.S. Geological Survey reported.
There were no immediate report of injuries, damages or deaths.
The quake struck at 9:15 a.m. Sunday (7:15 p.m. ET Saturday), according to USGS.
The quake's epicenter was 30 kilometers (20 miles) east of Lae, Papua New Guinea, and 300 km (185 miles) north of the capital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
The quake had a depth of 66.2 kilometers (41.1 miles), USGS said.
Every generation thinks they are the last generation. | Another show of hands... Is anyone else excited about the possibility of a huge event changing the course of mankind? | I'm really concerned that some lone idiot is going to go and do something big, in the name of some terribly misinterpreted belief, that will completely fuck the rest of us. | Ask your parents about the duck and cover drills they had in school. Every generation thinks the world is going to end.
(Entertainment Weekly) -- If only "Kick-Ass" had been in 3-D maybe we would have had a different outcome. But instead, the DreamWorks Animated 3-D flick "How to Train Your Dragon" squeezed out a surprise come-from-behind first-place finish with an estimated $20 million take in its fourth weekend in release. | Falling only 20 percent, "Dragon's" total now stands at $158.6 million; a dearth of competing kids' movies has been beneficial to the well-reviewed Viking flick.
New York, 12:56 AM Mon Apr 19 17 posts in the last 24 hours | FR | IT | DE | SP | JP | AU | BR | PL | When you look at most of the two dozen or so people in this photograph, which belongs to a Canadian museum, there's no doubt that they're from 1940, the year in which it was taken. But what about that guy? | Those funky sunglasses? That stamped t-shirt and hippie shawl? The doofy, disinterested expression? He sure as hell doesn't look like any Roosevelt-era bro I have ever seen.
Last week we reported that our favorite piece of sandhog hardware, the massive Tunnel Boring Machine [TBM], would soon be put to work digging the Second Avenue subway. Well, the stories are true! Here's a look at the TBM cutter head that will be delivered to the Upper East Side in pieces over the next three weeks. The TBM blade head is 22 feet in diameter and with all its back-up equipment, excavation material haulage system and removal equipment, it will be over 300 feet long and weigh 485 tons, according to a community letter obtained by the Upper Green Side. The MTA says it's so big they'll need to close down part of Second Avenue during delivery, so get your earplugs ready, locals:
All lowering of the TBM and back-up components will take place at the deck opening between 92nd and 91st Streets. A large crane will be located south of this deck opening to perform the lowering operations. Due to the size of the machinery and DOT oversize load restrictions, the delivery of this equipment will need to occur at night between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., on weekdays only.
D.U.M.B: Deep Underground Bases and Tunnel boring Machines of the NWO
TheRobbinsCo — 14 April 2010 — Video shows how a Robbins Main Beam, or open-type, tunnel boring machine (TBM) excavates tunnels in hard rock.
Lifting the equipment off the trucks and lowering into the launch Box will require up to three lanes of Second Avenue to be closed to traffic for two weeks (April 12 through April 23) and one lane for one week (April 26 through April 30) between the hours of 11:00 pm and 6:00 am. In addition, all lanes will be shut down during the actual pick of the equipment for safety reasons.
Speaking of the Second Avenue subway project, did you know that in the late '60s/early '70s the MTA seriously considered routing the elusive subway line as far east as Avenue C? Second Avenue Sagas recalls the MTA once planned to divert the line east at 17th Street toward Stuyvesant Square (near Stuyvesant Town), under 15th, 14th and 13th Streets to Avenue A, south to Essex Street along East Broadway and across Chatham Square. This Avenue A extension would have cost an additional $57 million. Then the MTA planned an additional loop to Avenue C, between 14th and Houston Streets, for an extra $55 million. By 1974, these plans had gotten so expensive the whole project was shelved.
Below, more on this particular TBM (which has quite an illustrious history!), plus a gorgeous photo of what the entire TBM rig looks like once it's down in the hole with all the "trailing gear" attached.
A spokesperson for the MTA tells us, "The Second Ave Subway TBM was originally manufactured by Robbins about 30 years ago. It is a main gripper, hard-rock machine that has been used on at least 4 other projects and it has been reconditioned to be 'like new.' Schiavone rebuilt the machine in their Newark, N.J., yard where it was assembled and tested, and it has now been disassembled for shipment to the site where it will be reassembled again in the Launch Box.
"The last project that the TBM was used on was the Fall River CSO Project in Fall River, Mass. It was first used to dig the 63rd Street Tunnel in the late '70s. The cutterhead for the TBM has a diameter of 22 ft."